Phase Transitions of Single Salt Particles Studied Using a Transmission Electron Microscope with an Environmental Cell
The hygroscopic behavior of 0.1 to 4 μ m NaBr, CsCl, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, and KBr particles were monitored using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with an environmental cell into which gases can be introduced. This instrument, commonly called an environmental transmission electron microscope or ETEM, allowed us to observe phase transitions and behavior of small particles at relative humidities between 0 and 100%. We used deliquescence relative humidity and efflorescence relative humidity values from the literature for each salt to calibrate the relative humidity in the environmental cell. Using our methodology, we reliably and accurately measured the phase transitions and hygroscopic behavior of inorganic particles with the ETEM.
Wise, Matthew E.; Biskos, George; Martin, Scot T.; Russell, Lynn M.; and Buseck, Peter R., "Phase Transitions of Single Salt Particles Studied Using a Transmission Electron Microscope with an Environmental Cell" (2007). Faculty Research. 68.