Ed.D. Dissertations

Date of Award


Document Type

Open Access Dissertation


College of Education



Degree Name

Doctorate of Education, Ed.D.

Faculty Chair

Christopher Jenkins, Ph.D.

Content Specialist

Angela Owusu-Ansah, Ph.D.

Content Reader

Wanda F. Fernandopulle, Ed.D.


spiritual leadership, teacher collective efficacy, school climate, international school


This research explored whether spiritual leadership could predict teacher collective efficacy and school climate in Asian international schools. Fifteen international schools from nine countries elected to participate and 104 teachers completed an online survey. Linear regression and multiple regression were used to discover a prediction equation linking spiritual leadership to the outcomes of teacher collective efficacy and school climate. Findings from this study indicated that spiritual leadership significantly predicted teacher collective efficacy accounting for 28.3% of the variation, a small effect according to Cohen (1988). Further, spiritual leadership significantly predicted school climate accounting for 44.1.3% of the variation, a medium effect according to Cohen (1988). Using multiple regression, it was found that four of the six components of spiritual leadership added significantly to the prediction of teacher collective efficacy, p < .05 while all six components of spiritual leadership added significantly to the prediction of school climate, p < .05. It is recommended that more research is needed to examine this spiritual leadership theory in schools and in international schools, specifically research with larger samples.